Liberty and Diversity: An Example of the Garden State Variety: Lipp v. Morris, 579 F.2d 834 (1978)

Jonathan Lurie


One of the hallowed, if not hackneyed, words in the human lexicon is "liberty." To many, the term implies a positive concept-- the freedom to do something, not as a privilege but as a right. But there are multiple dimensions to the concept of liberty.  It can also imply a negative freedom, a right NOT to do something; or to decline to undertake a certain course of action or conduct.  It has been a part of our history since the establishment of New Jersey. From the rich and varied history of this Garden State, thereby lies an unusual tale of liberty and diversity. The focus of this talks concerns the Pledge of Allegiance, or POA.

In its original form, this paper was presented at the New Jersey Forum at Kean University on November 21, 2014.

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